View through walls.
Annealed glass, often known as float glass, sheet glass or flat glass.
They are commonly used for modern windows which installed in low traffic and low hazardous area.
Annealed glass is produced through a floating process where molten glass is fed into a molten metal
(e.g. lead, tin or various low melting alloy).
The molten glass will be floated and flattened on the molten metal by its own weight just like oil floating on water.
This method benefits the glass uniform in its thickness and very flat surface finishing.
Follow-by the annealing process, molten glass sheets will pass through a temperature-controlled kiln(lehr kiln) to be cooled gradually.
Unlike tempered glass, rapid air cooling is not going to work for molten glass, it will cause uneven temperature distribution in the glass that will cause cracking before the glass completely cooled off.
In case of breakage, the annealed glass will break into sharp shards that will be able to cause injuries quite easily. It is always recommended to be installed in low traffic or low hazardous area. Otherwise, tempered glass or laminated glass are the alternative options.
Tempered glass, often known as toughened glass. It is a safety glass which is four to six times the strength of annealed glass.
A common way to produce tempered glass is using heat-treatment.
Annealed glasses are treated in a furnace at approximately 590°C to 810°C, and they will be rapidly cooled by the forced air draft.
This heat toughening process puts the outer surfaces into compression and the inner surfaces into tension; to simplify into one word - STRESS.
In case of breakage, the tension stress cause the glass fractured into small granular form instead of sharp shards. In other words, tempered glass will cause much lesser injuries compare to the normal or annealed glass.
Fill the gap in between the annealed glass and tempered glass.
Surface compression between 3500-7500 psi (2x strength increase)
Twice as tough as annealed glass but nearly half of fully tempered glass.
Lesser optical distortions. Breaks in a manner similar to float glass but smaller in pieces.
Resist temperature up to 140°C.
Minimum surface compression of 9,700 psi (4x strength increase)
Four to five times stronger than normal annealed glass.
Very difficult to break, when it breaks, the whole pane will breaks evenly into granular form.
Resist temperature up to 250°c.
Laminated glass, is another type of safety glass.
It is a combination of two glass panes with interlayers which are known as Polyvinyl Butyral(PVA), Transparent Thermoplastic materials (TPU) or Transparent Thermoset material (EVA).
Glass panes can be annealed, heat-strengthed or tempered glass, subject to application requirement. The interlayers are sandwiched in between two or more glass panes.
Follow by a heating and pressurize process, the interlayers adhesive will hold both glass panes firmly together.
In case of breakage, the interlayers will hold the glass fragments from falling off and causing injuries.
The benefits of using laminated glass include:
Solar Energy Control
Low Visual Distortion
Protection from weather and natural disasters
Glass pane thickness + Interlayers thickness + Glass pane thickness = laminated glass thickness
Glass thickness – 3mm to 25mm interlayers thickness – 0.38mm per layer
Interlayer thickness – 0.38mm per layer
Common specification for residential – 16.76mm = 8mm + 0.76mm + 8mm
Common issue – ‘Delamination’ tend to happen when interlayers more than 3 layers and above.
Thicker the glass panes and more numbers of interlayers, more strength of the laminated glass.
CURTAINS & BLINDS
PLASTER CEILING & PARTITION